INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEED DATABASE

HRAC GROUP 2 (LEGACY B) RESISTANT YELLOW NUTSEDGE
(Cyperus esculentus)


Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)

Italy, Northern Italy, Piedmont region, Vercelli
INTRODUCTION YELLOW NUTSEDGE
Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) is a monocot weed in the Cyperaceae family.  In Italy this weed first evolved resistance to Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides in 2017 and infests Rice.   Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides are known as Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase (Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to azimsulfuron, and halosulfuron-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group 2 (Legacy B) herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Mar 08, 2023 )

Common NameYellow Nutsedge
SpeciesCyperus esculentus
GroupInhibition of Acetolactate Synthase HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
Herbicidesazimsulfuron, and halosulfuron-methyl
LocationItaly, Northern Italy, Piedmont region, Vercelli
Year2017
Situation(s)Rice
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Maurizio Sattin, and Laura Scarabel 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Laura Scarabel

This article is available online at https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081133

Scarabel L., Farinati S., Sattin M. Occurrence of resistance to ALS inhibitors in European Cyperus esculentus L.: characterisation and implications for management. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1133.

Abstract

 Yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus) is a perennial geophyte and invasive weed which is very difficult to control in rice and other irrigated row crops. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors are the most commonly used herbicides to control sedges in rice. Failure to control C. esculentus was recently reported in a rice field in north-western Italy. The resistance status of this C. esculentus population was determined through a whole-plant bioassay. The mechanism underlying the resistance was elucidated, and the available chemical and non-chemical control options were discussed. The population proved to be resistant to halosulfuron and azimsulfuron at the recommended field rate. The ALS trancripts amplified from resistant and susceptible plants revealed the presence of a Pro197-to-Arg amino acid substitution in resistant plants, indicating that the resistance mechanism is target-site mediated. This is the first confirmation of herbicide resistance in C. esculentus in Europe. Resistance management should be based on an integrated approach, through the combination of diversified cultural and agronomic practices that can limit its spread and propagation through tubers.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Yellow Nutsedge biotype with this Yellow Nutsedge biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on HRAC Group 2 resistant Yellow Nutsedge have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Yellow Nutsedge from Italy indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group 2 (Legacy B) resistant Yellow Nutsedge from Italy please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

MAURIZIO SATTIN
Senior Weed Scientist
Italian National Research Council (cnr)
IBAF - Weed Science Unit
Viale dell'Università 16
Legnaro, 35020, Padova
Italy
Email Maurizio Sattin
LAURA SCARABEL
Researcher
Institute of Agroenvironmental and Forest Biology
National Research Council (CNR)
viale dell'Università 16
Legnaro (PD), 35020, Padova
Italy
Email Laura Scarabel

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Italy have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Maurizio Sattin, and Laura Scarabel for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Yellow Nutsedge Globally
(Cyperus esculentus)
Herbicide Resistant Yellow Nutsedge Globally
(Cyperus esculentus)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Yellow Nutsedge Globally
(Cyperus esculentus)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 ItalyItaly 2017 Rice azimsulfuron, and halosulfuron-methyl 24 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
290Cyperus esculentusYellow Nutsedge24256
2 United States (Arkansas) United StatesArkansas2013 Rice halosulfuron-methyl 45 Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase ( HRAC Group 2 (Legacy B)
290Cyperus esculentusYellow Nutsedge6752
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Heap, I.  The International Herbicide-Resistant Weed Database.  Online.  Wednesday, November 29, 2023 .  Available  www.weedscience.org Copyright ¬© 1993- 2023 WeedScience.org All rights reserved. Fair use of this material is encouraged. Proper citation is requested.