INTERNATIONAL HERBICIDE-RESISTANT WEED DATABASE

GROUP A/1 RESISTANT ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
(Poa annua)


ACCase inhibitors (A/1)

New Zealand
INTRODUCTION ANNUAL BLUEGRASS
Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In New Zealand this weed first evolved resistance to Group A/1 herbicides in 2020 and infests Turf.   Group A/1 herbicides are known as ACCase inhibitors (Inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to haloxyfop-methyl and they may be cross-resistant to other Group A/1 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Sep 21, 2020 )

Common NameAnnual Bluegrass
SpeciesPoa annua
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
Herbicideshaloxyfop-methyl
LocationNew Zealand
Year2020
Situation(s)Turf
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Kerry Harrington 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Kerry Harrington

Nature Scientific Reports | (2020) 10:4231 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61104-0

Molecular characteristics of the first case of haloxyfop-resistant Poa annua
H. Ghanizadeh*, c. H. Mesarich & K. c. Harrington

Haloxyfop is one of two acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (Accase) inhibitors that is recommended for controlling Poa annua. We have characterised a population of P. annua that had developed resistance to haloxyfop. This resistant population was found to be almost 20 times less sensitive to haloxyfop than a susceptible population based on percentage survival of individuals in two dose-response experiments. However, the haloxyfop-resistant population was still susceptible to clethodim. pre-treatment of resistant individuals with a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, malathion, did not change the sensitivity level of the resistant plants to haloxyfop, suggesting that a non-target site mechanism of resistance involving enhanced metabolism, was not responsible for this resistance in P. annua. Gene sequencing showed that a target site mutation at position 2041, which replaced isoleucine with threonine in the carboxyltransferase (ct) domain of the Accase enzyme, was associated with resistance to haloxyfop in the resistant population. An evaluation of the 3-D structure of the CT domain suggested that, unlike Asn-2041, which is the most common mutation at this position reported to date, Thr-2041 does not change the conformational structure of the CT domain. This is the first study investigating the molecular mechanism involved with haloxyfop resistance in P. annua.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Annual Bluegrass biotype with this Annual Bluegrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A/1 resistant Annual Bluegrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of Group A/1 resistant Annual Bluegrass from New Zealand indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group A/1 resistant Annual Bluegrass from New Zealand please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

KERRY HARRINGTON
Massey University
624 Betts Rd
Palmerston North
New Zealand
Email Kerry Harrington

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in New Zealand have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Kerry Harrington for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Annual Bluegrass Globally
(Poa annua)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2009 Golf courses, and Turf endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5513
2 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16084
3 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16085
4 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16086
5 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses propyzamide = pronamide 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16087
6 Australia (South Australia) AustraliaSouth Australia2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and rimsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16088
7 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and rimsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16089
8 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16090
9 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16091
10 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses propyzamide = pronamide 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16092
11 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and rimsulfuron 1 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16093
12 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses simazine 1 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16094
13 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses glyphosate 1 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16095
14 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses endothall 1 Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16096
15 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses propyzamide = pronamide 1 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16097
16 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses bispyribac-sodium, endothall, foramsulfuron, glyphosate, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, propyzamide = pronamide, rimsulfuron, and simazine 1 Multiple Resistance: 5 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
Unknown (Z/27)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass16098
17 Australia (New South Wales ) AustraliaNew South Wales 2017 Golf courses pinoxaden 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18189
18 Australia (Victoria) AustraliaVictoria2017 Golf courses pinoxaden 1 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18190
19 BelgiumBelgium 1981 Nurseries, Orchards, and Roadsides simazine 3 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass33
20 BelgiumBelgium 1983 Orchards amitrole 3 Carotenoid biosynthesis (unknown target) (F3/11)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass38
21 BelgiumBelgium 1993 Hops paraquat 3 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass36
22 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 1988 Orchards, and Railways atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, and terbutryn 12 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass85
23 FranceFrance 1978 Orchards atrazine 17 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass464
24 FranceFrance 2015 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and mesosulfuron-methyl 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18180
25 GermanyGermany 1980 Orchards atrazine 18 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass449
26 JapanJapan 1982 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 25 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass117
27 NetherlandsNetherlands 1981 Orchards simazine 43 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass219
28 New ZealandNew Zealand 2020 Turf haloxyfop-methyl 30 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18203
29 NorwayNorway 1996 Nurseries simazine 31 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass388
30 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Hops paraquat 44 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass359
31 United KingdomUnited Kingdom 1981 Orchards simazine 44 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass366
32 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama1980 Pastures simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1166
33 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed ethofumesate 45 Lipid Inhibitors (N/16)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass334
34 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed diuron 45 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass336
35 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon1994 Grass seed atrazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass338
36 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1995 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1060
37 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi1996 Turf atrazine, and simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1187
38 United States (North Carolina) United StatesNorth Carolina1997 Golf courses, and Turf pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass1165
39 United States (Oregon) United StatesOregon2000 Grass seed diuron, and metribuzin 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass18181
40 United States (Virginia) United StatesVirginia2001 Golf courses, and Turf simazine 45 Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5162
41 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2007 Golf courses, and Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5645
42 United States (Missouri) United StatesMissouri2010 Turf glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5495
43 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2011 Golf courses, and Turf glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5596
44 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf bispyribac-sodium, foramsulfuron, imazaquin, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5644
45 United States (Alabama) United StatesAlabama2012 Turf dithiopyr, pendimethalin, and prodiamine 45 Microtubule inhibitors (K1/3)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass5695
46 United States (Tennessee) United StatesTennessee2013 Golf courses, and Turf foramsulfuron, simazine, and trifloxysulfuron-sodium 45 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Photosystem II inhibitors (C1/5)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass6765
47 United States (California) United StatesCalifornia2013 Almonds glyphosate 45 EPSP synthase inhibitors (G/9)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass7805
48 United States (Mississippi) United StatesMississippi2014 Golf courses foramsulfuron 45 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
130Poa annuaAnnual Bluegrass10982
Literature about Similar Cases

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