International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
GROUP D/22 RESISTANT JAPANESE MAZUS
(Mazus pumilus)


PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)

Japan, Oita
INTRODUCTION JAPANESE MAZUS
Japanese Mazus (Mazus pumilus) is a dicot weed in the Scrophulariaceae family.  In Japan this weed first evolved resistance to Group D/22 herbicides in 2006 and infests Gardens, Orchards, Roadsides, and Vegetables.   Group D/22 herbicides are known as PSI Electron Diverter (Photosystem-I-electron diversion).  Research has shown that these particular biotypes are resistant to paraquat and they may be cross-resistant to other Group D/22 herbicides.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

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QUIK STATS (last updated Oct 21, 2014 )

Common NameJapanese Mazus
SpeciesMazus pumilus
GroupPSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
Herbicidesparaquat
LocationJapan, Oita
Year2006
Situation(s)Gardens, Orchards, Roadsides, and Vegetables
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Satoshi Iwakami, Tohru Tominaga, and Akira Uchino 
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NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Tohru Tominaga
TSUJI K, HOSOKAWA M, MORITA S, MIURA R & TOMINAGA T (2013). Resistance to paraquat in Mazus pumilus. Weed Research 53, 176–182.
Summary
Mazus pumilus is an annual self-pollinating weed that is commonly found in arable land, vegetable gardens and roadsides. This weed harbours insects and pathogens that attack vegetables. The mechanism of resistance to paraquat of M. pumilus found in Ohita, Japan, was studied. Whole plant bioassays revealed that the resistant (R) biotypes were four to six times less susceptible than controls. Chlorophyll destruction of leaf discs by paraquat treatment in R biotypes was 4–20 times lower than those of susceptible (S) biotypes. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values in R biotypes were higher than those of S biotypes before and after paraquat treatments. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was also higher in R biotypes than those of S biotypes before and after treatment with paraquat, but the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) were not different between R and S biotypes. Change of ascorbate (AsA) contents before and after paraquat treatment was equivalent in both biotypes. These results indicate that the increased SOD activity and antioxidant capacity in R biotypes contribute to the resistance to paraquat of M. pumilus.

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ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Japanese Mazus biotype with this Japanese Mazus biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group D/22 resistant Japanese Mazus have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

The mechanism of resistance for this biotype is either unknown or has not been entered in the database.  If you know anything about the mechanism of resistance for this biotype then please update the database.
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of Group D/22 resistant Japanese Mazus from Japan please update the database.
 
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CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

SATOSHI IWAKAMI
Weed Scientist
University of Tsukuba
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences
1-1-1 Tennoudai
Tsukuba, 305-8577, Ibaraki
Japan
Email Satoshi Iwakami
TOHRU TOMINAGA
Professor
Kyoto University
Graduate School of Agriculture
Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho
Sakyo
Kyoto, 606-8502, Kyoto
Japan
Email Tohru Tominaga
AKIRA UCHINO
Weed Scientist
NARO Agricultural Research Center
Graduate School of Agriculture
3-1-1 Kannondai
Tsukuba, 305-8666, Ibaraki
Japan
Email Akira Uchino

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Japan have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Satoshi Iwakami, Tohru Tominaga, and Akira Uchino for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Japanese Mazus Globally
(Mazus pumilus)
Herbicide Resistant Japanese Mazus Globally
(Mazus pumilus)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Japanese Mazus Globally
(Mazus pumilus)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 JapanJapan 2006 Gardens, Orchards, Roadsides, and Vegetables paraquat 25 PSI Electron Diverter (D/22)
296Mazus pumilusJapanese Mazus7767
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Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Tuesday, July 16, 2019 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
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