International Survey of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds

Countries Weeds Herbicides Mutations Graphs References Researchers
MULTIPLE RESISTANT SILKY WINDGRASS
(Apera spica-venti)


Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)

Denmark
INTRODUCTION SILKY WINDGRASS
Silky Windgrass (Apera spica-venti) is a monocot weed in the Poaceae family.  In Denmark this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 2016 and infests Wheat.  Multiple resistance has evolved to herbicides in the Groups A/1, and B/2.  These particular biotypes are known to have resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden and they may be cross-resistant to other herbicides in the Groups A/1, and B/2.

The 'Group' letters/numbers that you see throughout this web site refer to the classification of herbicides by their site of action. To see a full list of herbicides and HRAC herbicide classifications click here.

If we do not have a picture for this weed, or you can provide a better picture (scan, digital camera etc) please please e-mail it to us.

QUIK STATS (last updated May 07, 2017 )

Common NameSilky Windgrass
SpeciesApera spica-venti
GroupACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
Herbicidesfenoxaprop-P-ethyl, florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden
LocationDenmark
Year2016
Situation(s)Wheat
Contributors - (Alphabetically)Solvejg Mathiassen 
Edit this Case  |  Add New Case of Resistance  |  Add Note

NOTES ABOUT THIS BIOTYPE

GENERAL

Solvejg Mathiassen

April 2017 Update

Apera spica-venti

7 verified cases – all from fields in which farmers or advisors suspected resistance. The resistance factors indicate the mechanism to be enhanced metabolism. Genotyping: None of the seven ALS mutations were found in 16 populations tested. Mutations in ACCase genes were found at two positions Ile1781 and Ile 2041. The overall frequency of ALS and ACCase NTSR activity correlated well with the resistant phenotypes. Genotyping performed by Bayer CropScience. References: Babineau M.: Microevolution of ALS inhibitor herbicide resistance in loose silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti). PhD dissertation, Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, January 2017. Babineau M., Mahmood K., Mathiassen S.K., Kudsk P., Kristensen M. (2017): De novo transcriptome assembly analysis of weed Apera spica-venti from seven tissues and growth stages. BMC Genomics, vol. 18, 128, 06.02.2017   Babineau M., Solvejg K. Mathiassen, Michael Kristensen, Niels Holst, Roland Beffa and Per Kudsk (2017): Spatial Distribution of ALS Resistance Mechanisms in Neighboring Populations of Apera spica-venti. Accepted for publication in Weed Science, March 2017

Edit this Note  |  Add New Note
 

ACADEMIC ASPECTS

Confirmation Tests

Greenhouse, and Laboratory trials comparing a known susceptible Silky Windgrass biotype with this Silky Windgrass biotype have been used to confirm resistance. For further information on the tests conducted please contact the local weed scientists that provided this information.
 
Genetics

Genetic studies on Group A, B/1, 2 resistant Silky Windgrass have not been reported to the site.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the genetics of this biotype in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Mechanism of Resistance

Studies on the mechanism of resistance of multiple resistant Silky Windgrass from Denmark indicate that resistance is due to an altered target site, and enhanced metabolism.  There may be a note below or an article discussing the mechanism of resistance in the Fact Sheets and Other Literature
 
Relative Fitness

There is no record of differences in fitness or competitiveness of these resistant biotypes when compared to that of normal susceptible biotypes.  If you have any information pertaining to the fitness of multiple resistant Silky Windgrass from Denmark please update the database.
 
Edit Case  |  Add Note  |  Add Article  |  Add New Case  |  Help

CONTRIBUTING WEED SCIENTISTS

SOLVEJG MATHIASSEN
Senior Scientist
Aarhus University, Science and Technology
Dept. of Agroecology
P.o. Box 30
Slagelse, 4200, Slagelse Municipality
Denmark
Email Solvejg Mathiassen

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, The Weed Science Society of America, and weed scientists in Denmark have been instrumental in providing you this information. Particular thanks is given to Solvejg Mathiassen for providing detailed information.
Herbicide Resistant Silky Windgrass Globally
(Apera spica-venti)
Herbicide Resistant Silky Windgrass Globally
(Apera spica-venti)
Drag a column header and drop it here to group by that column
Herbicide Resistant Silky Windgrass Globally
(Apera spica-venti)
#CountryFirstYearSituationActive IngredientsSite of Action
1 AustriaAustria 2009 Cereals iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and isoproturon 2 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass6746
2 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 2005 Cereals, and Winter wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 12 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5266
3 DenmarkDenmark 2011 Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and sulfosulfuron 13 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5674
4 DenmarkDenmark 2016 Wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, florasulam, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pinoxaden 13 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass15078
5 FranceFrance 2006 Wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, and pyroxsulam 17 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass9936
6 GermanyGermany 1997 Cereals, and Winter wheat isoproturon 18 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5026
7 GermanyGermany 2005 Wheat chlorsulfuron, florasulam, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, pyroxsulam, sulfometuron-methyl, and sulfosulfuron 18 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5526
8 GermanyGermany 2009 Spring Barley, and Winter wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, pyroxsulam, and sulfosulfuron 18 Multiple Resistance: 3 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5410
9 LatviaLatvia 2015 Wheat, and Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 174 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass15067
10 LithuaniaLithuania 2013 Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 185 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass7821
11 PolandPoland 2005 Winter wheat chlorsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, procarbazone-sodium, and sulfosulfuron 33 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5395
12 PolandPoland 2010 Winter wheat fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and pinoxaden 33 ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass5619
13 PolandPoland 2011 Winter wheat chlorsulfuron, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, pinoxaden, sulfometuron-methyl, and sulfosulfuron 33 Multiple Resistance: 2 Sites of Action
ACCase inhibitors (A/1)
ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass6758
14 PolandPoland 2012 Winter wheat isoproturon 33 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass6759
15 SwedenSweden 2006 Winter wheat isoproturon 40 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass10996
16 SwedenSweden 2010 Winter wheat iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, and sulfosulfuron 40 ALS inhibitors (B/2)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass10994
17 SwitzerlandSwitzerland 1994 Wheat isoproturon 41 PSII inhibitor (Ureas and amides) (C2/7)
20Apera spica-ventiSilky Windgrass208
Literature about Similar Cases

Page size:
select
Page: of 12
Items 1 to 5 of 57

Page size:
select
Page: of 12
Items 1 to 5 of 57
PERMISSION MUST BE OBTAINED FIRST if you intend to base a significant portion of a scientific paper on data derived from this site.
Cite this site as: Heap, I.  The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.  Online.  Internet.  Tuesday, November 13, 2018 .  Available  www.weedscience.org
Copyright © 1993- 2018 WeedScience.org All rights reserved. Fair use of this material is encouraged. Proper citation is requested.